Cyber / Internet Terms and their Relevancy in Common Life

Cyber / Internet Terms and their Relevancy in Common Life

  Accreditation certificate:

 is a process for implementing any formal process. It is a systematic procedure for evaluating, describing, testing and authorizing systems or activities prior to or after a system is in operation.

 Accreditation certificate:

 is a process for implementing any formal process. It is a systematic procedure for evaluating, describing, testing and authorizing systems or activities prior to or after a system is in operation.

 

Accredited Certification Service Provider

Cryptography services:

Cryptography is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties.

Advanced electronic signature

A digital signature (standard electronic signature) takes the concept of traditional paper-based signing and turns it into an electronic “fingerprint.” This “fingerprint,” or coded message, is unique to both the document and the signer and binds both of them together. Digital signatures ensures the authenticity of the signer. Any changes made to the document after it has been signed invalidate the signature, thereby protecting against signature forgery and information tampering. As such, digital signatures help organizations sustain signer authenticity, accountability, data integrity and the non-repudiation of signed electronic documents and forms.

Electronic document:

An electronic document is any electronic media content (other than computer programs or system files) that are intended to be used in either an electronic form or as printed output.

 

Digital:

Describes any system based on discontinuous data or events.Computers are digital machines because at their most basic level they can distinguish between just two values, 0 and 1, or off and on.

Analog:

Describes a device or system that represents changing values as continuously variable physical quantities. A typical analog device is a clock in which the hands move continuously around the face. Such a clock is capable of indicating every possible time of day.

Magnet:

magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field. This magnetic field is invisible but is responsible for the most notable property of a magnet: a force that pulls on other ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, and attracts or repels other magnets.

Biometrics:

Biometrics (or biometric authentication) refers to the identification of humans by their characteristics or traits. Biometrics is used in computer science as a form of identification and access control.[1] It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.

Electronic Forms:

An electronic document is any electronic media content (other than computer programs or system files) that are intended to be used in either an electronic form or as printed output.

Electronic Acknowledgment of receipt:

Advice or acknowledgment of receipt) is a service whereby the sender of an item of mail receives confirmation that it has been delivered.

Electronic Payment:

Electronic money is a new expression the meaning of which is not stable. It can refer to different realities depending on the context (legal or not, historical or actual, monetary theory.

Electronic Data means:

The term “Electronic data” refers to any original and any non-identical copies (whether non-identical because of notes made on copies or attached comments, annotations, marks, transmission notations, or highlighting of any kind), of mechanical, facsimile, electronic, magnetic, digital or other programs (whether private, commercial, or work-in-progress), programming notes or instructions, activity listings of electronic mail receipts or transmittals, output resulting from the use of any software program, including word processing documents.

Electronic component / device:

An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields. Electronic components are mostly industrial products, available in a singular form and are not to be confused with electrical elements, which are conceptual abstractions representing idealized electronic components.

Electronic system:

Electronic systems are groupings of electronic circuits and components which are designed to accomplish one or more complex functions. Examples include telecommunication systems, computer systems, power distribution systems, radar systems, electronic music systems, and many others.

 

Plain version:

In computing, plain text is the contents of an ordinary sequential file readable as textual material without much processing, usually opposed to formatted text and to “binary files” in which some portions must be interpreted as binary objects.

Internet Traffic Data:

Internet traffic is the flow of data across the Internet because of the distributed nature of the Internet, there is no single point of measurement for total Internet traffic. Internet traffic data from public peering points can give an indication of Internet volume and growth, but these figures exclude traffic that remains within a single service provider’s network as well as traffic that crosses private peering points.

Date access:

Data access typically refers to software and activities related to storing, retrieving, or acting on data housed in a database or other repository. There are two types of data access, sequential access and random access.

Electronic Forgery:

Whoever for wrongful gain interferes with data, electronic system or Electronic Forgery Definition, with intent to cause damage or injury to the public or to any person, or to make any illegal claim or title or to cause any person to part with property or to enter into any express or implied contract, or with intent to commit fraud by any input, alteration, deletion, or suppression of data, resulting in unauthentic data with the intent.

Electronic Signature

An electronic signature is, like its paper equivalent, a legal concept. According to the U.S Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, an e-signature is an “electronic sound, symbol, or process attached to, or associated with, a contract or other record and adopted by a person with the intent to sign a record.

Example

Digital Signature:

A digital signature, on the other hand, refers to the encryption / decryption technology on which an electronic signature solution is built. A digital signature alone is not a type of electronic signature. Rather, digital signature encryption secures the data associated with a signed document and helps verify the authenticity of a signed record.

Example

Malicious code / Malware:

Malware, short for malicious software, is software used to disrupt computer operation, gather sensitive information, or gain access to private computer systems.

Cyber Stalking:

Cyberstalking is the use of the Internet or other electronic means to stalk or harass an individual, a group of individuals, or an organization.

Spamming:

Electronic spamming is the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages (spam), especially advertising, indiscriminately

Spoofing attack:

In the context of network security, a spoofing attack is a situation in which one person or program successfully masquerades as another by falsifying data and thereby gaining an illegitimate advantage.

Cyber terrorism:

Cyberterrorism is the use of Internet based attacks in terrorist activities, including acts of deliberate, large-scale disruption of computer networks, especially of personal computers attached to the Internet, by the means of tools such as computer viruses.

Common Internet Terms

 

1. The Web vs. the Internet

The Internet is a vast ‘interconnection of computer networks’ that spans the globe.  It is comprised of millions of computing devices that trade volumes of information.  Desktop computers, mainframes, GPS units, cell phones, car alarms, video game consoles, and even soda pop machines are connected to the Net.

The Internet started in the late 1960’s as an American military project, and has since evolved into a massive public spiderweb. No single organization owns or controls the Internet.  The Net has grown into a spectacular mishmash of non-profit, private sector, government, and entrepreneurial broadcasters.

The Internet houses many layers of information, with each layer dedicated to a different kind of documentation. These different layers are called ‘protocols‘. The most popular protocols are the World Wide Web, FTP, Telnet, Gopherspace, instant messaging, and email.

The World Wide Web, or ‘Web’ for short, is the most popular portion of the Internet.  The Web is viewed through web browser software.

2. Browser

A browser is a free software package that lets you view web pages, graphics, and most online content.  Browser software is specifically designed to convert HTML and XML into readable documents.

The most popular web browsers in 2013 are: Google Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Safari.

3. URL

URL’s, or ‘uniform resource locators’, are the web browser addresses of internet pages and files. A URL works together with IP addresses to help us name, locate, and bookmark specific pages and files for our web browsers.

URL’s commonly use three parts to address a page or file: the protocol (which is the portion ending in ‘//:’); the host computer (which sometimes ends in .com); and the filename/pagename itself. For example:

  • https://personal.bankofamerica.com/login/password.htm
  • http://forums.about.com/ab-guitar/?msg61989.1
  • ftp://files.microsoft.com/public/eBookreader.msi
  • telnet://freenet.edmonton.ca/main

4. IP Address

Your computer’s ‘internet protocol’ address is a four-part or eight-part electronic serial number. An IP address can look something like ‘202.3.104.55’ or like ’21DA:D3:0:2F3B:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A’, complete with dot or colon separators. Every computer, cell phone, and device that accesses the Internet is assigned at least one IP address for tracking purposes. Wherever you browse, whenever you send an email or instant message, and whenever you download a file, your IP address acts like a type of automobile licence plate to enforce accountability and traceability.

5. Email

Email  (formerly spelled e-mail with a hyphen) is electronic mail.  It is the sending and receiving of typewritten messages from one screen to another.  Email is usually handled by a webmail service (e.g. Gmail or Yahoomail), or an installed software package (e.g. Microsoft Outlook).

Email has many cousins: text messaging, instant messaging, live chat, videomail (v-mail), Google Waving.

6. Blogs and Blogging

A blog (‘web log’) is a modern online writer’s column.  Amateur and professional writers publish their blogs on most every kind of topic: their hobby interest in paintball and tennis, their opinions on health care, their commentaries on celebrity gossip, photo blogs of favorite pictures, tech tips on using Microsoft Office. Absolutely anyone can start a blog, and some people actually make reasonable incomes by selling advertising on their blog pages.

7. Social Media and Social Bookmarking

Social media is the broad term for any online tool that enables users to interact with thousands of other users. Instant messaging and chatting are common forms of social media, as are blogs with comments, discussion forums, video-sharing and photo-sharing websites. Facebook.com and MySpace.com are very large social media sites, as are YouTube.com and Digg.com.

Social bookmarking is a the specific form of social media. Social bookmarking is where users interact by recommending websites to each other (‘tagging sites’).

 8. Download

Downloading is a broad term that describes when you make a personal copy of something you find on the Internet or World Wide Web.  Commonly, downloading is associated with songs, music, and software files  (e.g. “I want to download a new musical ringtone for my cell phone”, “I want to download a trial copy of Microsoft Office 2010”).  The larger the file you are copying, the longer the download will take to transfer to your computer.  Some downloads will take 12 to 15 hours, depending on your Internet speed.

9. Malware

Malware is the broad term to describe any malicious software designed by hackers. Malware includes: viruses, trojans, ratware, keyloggers, zombie programs, and any other software that seeks to do one of four things:

  1. vandalize your computer in some way
  2. steal your private information
  3. take remote control of your computer (‘zombie’ your computer) for other ends
  4. manipulate you into purchasing something

Malware programs are the time bombs and wicked minions of dishonest programmers.

10. Router (aka ‘Network Router’)

A router, or in many cases, a router-modem combination, is the hardware device that acts as the traffic cop for network signals into your home. A router can be wired or wireless or both. Your router provides both a defense against hackers, and the redirection service of deciding which specific computer or printer should get which signals in your home. If your router or router-modem is configured correctly, your Internet speed will be fast, and hackers will be locked out.  If your router is poorly configured, you will experience network sluggishness and possible hacker intrusions.

 

11. Keywords and Tags/Labels

Keywords are search terms used to locate documents. Keywords are anywhere from one to five words long, separated by spaces or commas:  e.g. “horseback riding calgary” e.g. “ipad purchasing advice”  e.g. “ebay tips selling”. Keywords are the foundation for cataloging the Web, and the primary means by which you and I will find anything on the Web.

Tags (sometimes called ‘labels’) are recommendation keywords. Tags and labels focus on crosslinking you to related content… they are the modern evolution of ‘suggestions for further reading’.

Read more about keywords and tags/labels here…

12. Texting/Chatting

Texting is the short way to say ‘text messaging’, the sending of short electronic notes usually from a cell phone or handheld electronic device.  Texting is popular with people who are mobile and away from their desk computers.  Texting is something like the pagers of old, but has the file attachment ability of email.

To send a text message, you will usually need a keyboard-enabled cellphone and a text message service through your cellphone provider.  You address your text messages using the recipient’s phone number.

In 2010, texting has spawned a controversial habit called ‘sexting’, which is when young people send sexual photos of themselves to other cell phone users.

13. I.M.

I.M. (usually spelled ‘IM’ without the periods) is instant messaging, a form of modern online chatting.  IM is somewhat like texting, somewhat like email, and very much like sending notes in a classroom. IM uses specialized no-cost software that you install on your computer.  That IM software in turn connects you to potentially thousands of other IM users through the Internet.  You locate existing friends and make new friends by searching for their IM nicknames.

Once the software and your friends list is in place, you can send instantaneous short messages to each other, with the option of including file attachments and links.  While the recipient sees your message instantly, they can choose to reply at their leisure.

14. E-commerce

E-commerce is ‘electronic commerce’: the transacting of business selling and buying online.  Every day, billions of dollars exchange hands through the Internet and World Wide Web.  Sometimes, the e-commerce is your company buying office products from another company (business-to-business ‘B2B’ e-commerce).  Sometimes, the e-ecommerce is when you make a private purchase as a retail customer from an online vendor (business-to-consumer ‘B2C’ e-commerce).

E-commerce works because reasonable privacy can be assured through technical means (e.g. https secure web pages), and because modern business values the Internet as a transaction medium.

15. Social Engineering

Social engineering is the conman art of talking directly to people to trick them into divulging passwords and their private information.  All social engineering attacks are some form of a masquerade or phishing attack, designed to convince you that the attacker is trustworthy as a friend or as a legitimate authority figure. The attacker might use an email, phone call, or even face-time interview to deceive you. Common social engineering attacks include greeting cards, bogus lottery winnings, stock investment scams, warnings from an alleged banker that you’ve been hacked, credit card companies pretending to protect you.

16. Phishing and Whaling

‘Phishing’ is what modern-day con men do to defraud you of your personal accounts. Phishing is the use of convincing-looking emails and web pages to lure you into typing your account numbers and passwords/PINs. Often in the form of fake eBay web pages, fake PayPal warning messages, and fake bank login screens, phishing attacks can be very convincing to anyone who is not trained to watch for the subtle clues. As a rule, smart users distrust any email link that says “you should login and confirm this”.

17. Trojan

A trojan is a special kind of hacker program that relies on the user to welcome it and activate it.  Named after the famous Trojan horse tale, a trojan program masquerades as a legitimate file or software program.  Sometimes it will be an innocent-looking movie file, or an installer that pretends to be actual anti-hacker software. The power of the trojan attack comes from users naively downloading and running the trojan file.

18. Spamming and Filtering

‘Spam’ has two meanings. 1) Spam can mean ‘the rapid reptition of a keyboard command’. But more commonly, 2) spam is the jargon name of ‘unwanted/unsolicited email’.  Spam email is usually comprised of two sub-categories: high-volume advertising, and hackers attempting to lure you into divulging your passwords.

Filtering is the popular-but-imperfect defense against spam.  Filtering uses software that reads your incoming email for keyword combinations, andthen either deletes or quarantines messages that appear to be spam.  Look for a ‘spam’ or ‘junk’ folder in your mailbox to see your quarantine of filtered email.

19. Cloud Computing and Software-

Cloud computing is a fancy term to describe that your software is online and ‘borrowed’, instead of purchased and actually installed on your computer. Web-based email is the most prevalent example of cloud computing: the users’ email is all stored and accessed ‘in the cloud’ of the Internet, and not actually on their own computers. This is the modern version of the 1970’s mainframe computing model. As part of the cloud computing model, ‘Software as a Service’ is the business model that claims people would rather rent software than actually own it. With their web browsers, users access the cloud of the Internet, and log into their online rented copies of their SaaS software.

20. Encryption and Authentication

Encryption is the mathematical scrambling of data so that it is hidden from eavesdroppers.  Encryption uses complex math formulas (‘ciphers’) to turn private data into meaningless gobbledygook that only trusted readers can unscramble.  Encryption is the basis for how we use the public Internet as a pipeline to conduct trusted business, like online banking and online credit card purchasing.  On the provision that reliable encryption is in place, your banking information and credit card numbers are kept private.

Authentication is directly related to encryption.  Authentication is the complex way that computer systems verify that you are who you say you are.

21. Firewall

Firewall is a generic term to describe ‘a barrier against destruction’.  It comes from the building term of a protective wall to prevent the spreading of housefires or engine compartment fires.  In the case of computing, ‘firewall’ means to have software and/or hardware protecting you from hackers and viruses.

Computing firewalls range from small antivirus software packages, to very complex and expensive software + hardware solutions. All the many kinds of computer firewalls offer some kind of safeguard against hackers vandalizing or taking over your computer system.

 

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